7 Causes, Effects, and Solutions to Overpopulation


Overpopulation is a big issue that affects everyone in the world, both in the present and in the future. This is particularly true in countries that have high population densities, such as China, Bahrain, and Bangladesh. Overpopulation happens not just because of high birth rates, but also because of the increased availability of good medical care, which can lead to a longer lifespan. With people living longer lives, the balance between birth rates and death rates has shifted, and it’s now easy for a country’s population to grow beyond what is sustainable.

Having a large population is dangerous since it spreads meager resources too thin. As a result, people don’t get enough food, water, shelter, and clothing, and distributing basic services like healthcare and education becomes a huge challenge. A high population density, meanwhile, forces people to live closer to each other than normal (which can compromise health and sanitation) and reduces the amount of land that’s available for agricultural use.

Overpopulation is not easy to solve. However, there are several solutions that governments can explore, such as the following:

1. Spreading Awareness About Overpopulation.

Most people nowadays aren’t really familiar with overpopulation and its negative effects, and this lack of awareness can lead to families that don’t limit the number of children they have. However, when people are thoroughly educated about overpopulation, they become more aware of how their actions affects the entire country, and they can deliberately do their part to keep their country’s population at a sustainable level.

2. Making Family Planning Services More Available.

Many people know about the effects of overpopulation and want to limit the number of children they have, but they don’t know where to start or what to do. This is where family planning services come in. Most family planning clinics educate couples about the appropriate number of years in between children and discuss how proper pregnancy spacing can help improve maternal and child health. They also inform couples about the steps they can take to prevent unplanned pregnancies, such as going through voluntary sterilization or using artificial contraception. With these information at hand, couples can effectively plan how they can have the ideal number of children.

3. Making Birth Control Products More Available.

Many unplanned pregnancies occur among poor women simply because they don’t have access to birth control pills and devices. These products are often sold at a high prices, making them inaccessible to those who don’t have a large budget. Governments can counter this by creating a program that makes birth control products available for free or at a substantial discount and spreading awareness about this program. It might seem to expensive at first glance but, in the long run, preventing pregnancies is much cheaper than dealing with the effects of overpopulation.

4. Incorporating Overpopulation Awareness In School.

Adults are not the only ones who should know about overpopulation and its negative effects. To make the next generation aware of this issue, it’s important for schools to integrate lessons about population in curriculum for all levels. This way, children will understand the economic and environmental impacts of overpopulation and will grow up knowing how they can help solve this problem. They will also be aware of the emotional, psychological, and medical effects of having numerous pregnancies, both on mothers and on children, which can help them make the right decisions for their family when they become adults.

5. Working With Religious Institutions.

A lot of people want to practice family planning or use birth control pills/devices but are not able to do so because of their religion. Others, meanwhile, simply dismiss these products and services because they firmly believe that limiting pregnancies goes against their religious beliefs. Because of this, it’s important for governments to work hand in hand with religious institutions. This way, they can promote the use of family planning and artificial contraceptives (and limit overpopulation in the process) while still giving people the freedom to practice their religion.

6. Removing Policies That Reward Large Families.

Many countries around the world have policies that, intentionally or no, reward families with more children. In the UK, for example, those who have three children or more can take advantage of the Earned Income Tax Credit (as long as they fulfill the income requirements). Other countries, meanwhile, offer fertility incentives to entice couples to procreate and have more children.

It’s not fair to say that these policies and rewards are the primary reasons why people have more children. However, they’re an important factor to consider since, in one way or another, they do reduce the burden of parents and make having more kids a more attractive option. Obviously, removing these rewards will cause an uproar among people, so governments should think of ways to change these policies without putting existing large families at risk of poverty and food insecurity.

7. Implementing New Government Policies.

Aside from removing policies that promote overpopulation, governments should introduce new rules that will help with population control. China, for example, introduced its one-child policy in the late 1970s and demanded that couples should have no more than one child.

The Chinese government insists that the policy has prevented 400 million births, although this claim has not been independently verified. Whether this is true or not, the one-child policy has resulted to positive effects; girls, who traditionally had lower status in households, are now given more opportunities for education and self-improvement. However, there are also negative effects: an increase in abortion rates, a skewed sex ratio (due to the traditional preference for sons), and higher rates of abandonment for baby girls, among others.

Many people consider the one-child policy to be controversial because of its negative impact. It’s important to note, though, that this isn’t the only way to counter overpopulation. Instead of actually limiting the number of births, government can provide financial rewards to families with one or two children and increasing the required taxes for those who bear three children and more. This way, parents still have the freedom to choose how they want to grow their family, but they’ll have to face consequences if they insist on having many children.

Final Note

Overpopulation is not a simple problem to solve. But, by exploring the solutions above, governments and citizens can limit population explosion and create a world that provides a good quality of life for everybody.